MA'BAROT (Heb. מַעְבָּרוֹת; "Fords"), kibbutz in central Israel, near the Alexander River, affiliated with Kibbutz Arẓi ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir. It was founded in 1933, as one of the first villages in the Ḥefer Plain by immigrants from Romania, Germany, Bulgaria, and Hungary, and later joined by others. Its economy was based on farming, such as field crops, citrus groves, orchards, fishery, and dairy cattle, and food enterprises – pet food, milk replacers for calves and lambs, and Materna milk substitutes and baby food. In the mid-1990s, the population was approximately 780, dropping to 734 in 2002. -WEBSITE:\>\> . (Efraim Orni / Shaked Gilboa (2nd ed.) MACALISTER, ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART° MACALISTER, ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART° (1870–1951), Irish archaeologist. From 1899 to 1900 he participated with F.J. Bliss in the excavation of mounds in the Shephelah and in 1902–05 and 1907–09 directed the excavation of Gezer, publishing a three-volume report single-handedly in 1912. In 1925 he directed an excavation on the hill of Ophel in Jerusalem. In his later years, he was professor of Celtic archaeology at Dublin (1909–43). He was one of the pioneers of Palestinian archaeology, being the first to publish his finds in an exact manner and laying the foundations for comparative dating by ceramics and context dating. His works include The Philistines (1914) and A Century of Excavation in Palestine (1925). (Michael Avi-Yonah)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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